Bagheri, S., and Kabiri-Samani, A.R., (2020). “Simulation of free surface flow over the streamlined weirs”, Flow Measurment and Instrumentation, Elsevier, Accepted.
The streamlined weirs are a special type of weirs, designed on the basis of airfoil theory. Because of their particular design, they have some merits compared to the other types of weirs, such as; high discharge coefficient, more stability of overflow and less fluctuations of water free surface. In the present study, a numerical simulation performed using an open source software namely, OpenFOAM, to give details about the flow structure over, up- and downstream of these weirs. Also, an experimentation setup was devised to evaluate the numerical results and determine the best numerical model. Analyzing the results of different turbulence models including; standard k-ε, realizable k-ε, RNG k-ε, k-ω SST, and Reynolds stress LRR, indicated that all the aforementioned models accurately estimate the flow field and hydraulic parameters. However, the k-ω SST model gives more accurate results, very close to the experimental data especially for the Reynolds stresses. Accordingly, the k-ω SST turbulence model was chosen as the best turbulence model for analyzing the flow over the streamlined weirs. Numerical results for different relative eccentricities show that, by increasing the relative eccentricity, the flow velocity over the crest of the weirs increases and accordingly the pressure in such section decreases. For a constant flow discharge upstream of different types of the streamlined weirs, the lowest bed pressure and the most probable potential of cavitation belongs to a circular-crested weir (a streamlined weir with a relative eccentricity of unity). Furthermore, the greatest bed shear stresses and the compressive forces occur downstream of the circular-crested weir. Thus, downstream of a circular-crested weir is responsible for larger potential of bed erosion. This is partly due to the formation of shock waves, reduction of the flow depth, and enhancement of the flow velocity downstream of a circular-crested weir. Moreover, the lowest bed shear stresses were observed upstream of the circular-crested weir. Therefore, upstream of a circular-crested weir shows the greatest potential of sedimentation. Finally, applying the streamlined weirs with an appropriate curvature, diminishes the unfavorable flow conditions, as observed for the circular-crested weir, being the safer and economic hydraulic structures.